September 11, 2012

Visual Studio Overview

INTRODUCTION :

Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It is used to develop console and graphical user interface (GUI) applications along with Windows Forms applications, web sites, web applications, and web services in both native code together with managed code for all platforms supported by Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, .NET Framework, .NET Compact Framework and Microsoft Silverlight.

Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense as well as code refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a forms designer for building GUI applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It accepts plug-ins that enhance the functionality at almost every level—including adding support for source-control systems (like Subversion and Visual SourceSafe) and adding new toolsets like editors and visual designers for domain-specific languages or toolsets for other aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the Team Foundation Server client: Team Explorer).

Visual Studio supports different programming languages by means of language services, which allow the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees) nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in languages include C/C++ (via Visual C++), VB.NET (via Visual Basic .NET), C# (via Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2010). Support for other languages such as M, Python, and Ruby among others is available via language services installed separately. It also supports XML/XSLT, HTML/XHTML, JavaScript and CSS. Individual language-specific versions of Visual Studio also exist which provide more limited language services to the user: Microsoft Visual Basic, Visual J#, Visual C#, and Visual C++.

ARCHITECTURE :

Visual Studio does not support any programming language, solution or tool intrinsically, instead allows the plugging of functionality coded as a VSPackage. When installed, the functionality is available as a Service. The IDE provides three services: SVsSolution, which provides the ability to enumerate projects and solutions; SVsUIShell, which provides windowing and UI functionality (including tabs, toolbars and tool windows); and SVsShell, which deals with registration of VSPackages. In addition, the IDE is also responsible for coordinating and enabling communication between services. All editors, designers, project types and other tools are implemented as VSPackages. Visual Studio uses COM to access the VSPackages. The Visual Studio SDK also includes the Managed Package Framework (MPF), which is a set of managed wrappers around the COM-interfaces that allow the Packages to be written in any CLI compliant language. However, MPF does not provide all the functionality exposed by the Visual Studio COM interfaces. The services can then be consumed for creation of other packages, which add functionality to the Visual Studio IDE.

Visual Studio supports running multiple instances of the environment. The instances use different registry hives to store their configuration state and are differentiated by their AppId (Application ID). The instances are launched by an AppId-specific .exe that selects the AppId, sets the root hive and launches the IDE. VSPackages registered for one AppId are integrated with other VSPackages for that AppId. The various product editions of Visual Studio are created using the different AppIds. The Visual Studio Express edition products are installed with their own AppIds, but the Standard, Professional and Team Suite products share the same AppId. Consequently, one can install the Express editions side-by-side with other editions, unlike the other editions which update the same installation. The professional edition includes a superset of the VSPackages in the standard edition and the team suite includes a superset of the VSPackages in both other editions. The AppId system is leveraged by the Visual Studio Shell in Visual Studio 2008.

FEATURES :

1) CODE EDITOR :

Visual Studio, like any other IDE, includes a code editor that supports syntax highlighting and code completion using IntelliSense for not only variables, functions and methods but also language constructs like loops and queries. IntelliSense is supported for the included languages, as well as for XML and for Cascading Style Sheets and JavaScript when developing web sites and web applications. Autocomplete suggestions are popped up in a modeless list box, overlaid on top of the code editor. In Visual Studio 2008 onwards, it can be made temporarily semi-transparent to see the code obstructed by it. The code editor is used for all supported languages.

2) DEBUGGER :

Visual Studio includes a debugger that works both as a source-level debugger and as a machine-level debugger. It works with both managed code as well as native code and can be used for debugging applications written in any language supported by Visual Studio. In addition, it can also attach to running processes and monitor and debug those processes. If source code for the running process is available, it displays the code as it is being run. If source code is not available, it can show the disassembly. The Visual Studio debugger can also create memory dumps as well as load them later for debugging. Multi-threaded programs are also supported. The debugger can be configured to be launched when an application running outside the Visual Studio environment crashes.

3) DESIGNER :

 i) WINDOWS FORMS DESIGNER :

 The Windows Forms designer is used to build GUI applications using Windows Forms. Layout can be controlled by housing the controls inside other containers or locking them to the side of the form. Controls that display data (like textbox, list box, grid view, etc.) can be bound to data sources like databases or queries. Data-bound controls can be created by dragging items from the Data Sources window onto a design surface. The UI is linked with code using an event-driven programming model. The designer generates either C# or VB.NET code for the application.

 ii) WPF DESIGNER : 

 The WPF designer, codenamed Cider, was introduced with Visual Studio 2008. Like the Windows Forms designer it supports the drag and drop metaphor. It is used to author user interfaces targeting Windows Presentation Foundation. It supports all WPF functionality including data binding and automatic layout management. It generates XAML code for the UI. The generated XAML file is compatible with Microsoft Expression Design, the designer-oriented product. The XAML code is linked with code using a code-behind model.

 iii) WEB DESIGNER / DEVELOPMENT :

 Visual Studio also includes a web-site editor and designer that allows web pages to be authored by dragging and dropping widgets. It is used for developing ASP.NET applications and supports HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It uses a code-behind model to link with ASP.NET code. From Visual Studio 2008 onwards, the layout engine used by the web designer is shared with Microsoft Expression Web. There is also ASP.NET MVC support for MVC technology as a separate download and ASP.NET Dynamic Data project available from Microsoft.

 iv) CLAS DESIGNER :

 The Class Designer is used to author and edit the classes (including its members and their access) using UML modeling. The Class Designer can generate C# and VB.NET code outlines for the classes and methods. It can also generate class diagrams from hand-written classes.

 v) DATA DESIGNER :

 The data designer can be used to graphically edit database schemas, including typed tables, primary and foreign keys and constraints. It can also be used to design queries from the graphical view.

 vi) MAPPING DESIGNER :

 From Visual Studio 2008 onwards, the mapping designer is used by LINQ to SQL to design the mapping between database schemas and the classes that encapsulate the data. The new solution from ORM approach, ADO.NET Entity Framework, replaces and improves the old technology. 

4) OTHER TOOLS :

 i) OPEN TABS BROWSER : 

 The open tabs browser is used to list all open tabs and to switch between them. It is invoked using CTRL+TAB.

 ii) PROPERTIES EDITOR : 

  The Properties Editor tool is used to edit properties in a GUI pane inside Visual Studio. It lists all available
properties (both read-only and those which can be set) for all objects including classes, forms, web pages and other items.

 iii) OBJECT BROWSER :

 The Object Browser is a namespace and class library browser for Microsoft .NET. It can be used to browse the namespaces (which are arranged hierarchically) in managed assemblies. The hierarchy may or may not reflect the organization in the file system.

 iv) SOLUTION EXPLORER :

 In Visual Studio parlance, a solution is a set of code files and other resources that are used to build an
application. The files in a solution are arranged hierarchically, which might or might not reflect the organization in the file system. The Solution Explorer is used to manage and browse the files in a solution.

 v) TEAM EXPLORER :

 Team Explorer is used to integrate the capabilities of Team Foundation Server, the Revision Control System into the IDE (and the basis for Microsoft's CodePlex hosting environment for open source projects). In addition to source control it provides the ability to view and manage individual work items (including bugs, tasks and other documents) and to browse TFS statistics. It is included as part of a TFS install and is also available as a download for Visual Studio separately. Team Explorer is also available as a stand-alone environment solely to access TFS services.

 vi) DATA EXPLORER :

 Data Explorer is used to manage databases on Microsoft SQL Server instances. It allows creation and alteration of database tables (either by issuing T-SQL commands or by using the Data designer). It can also be used to create queries and stored procedures, with the latter in either T-SQL or in managed code via SQL CLR. Debugging and IntelliSense support is available as well.

 vii) SERVER EXPLORER :

 The Server Explorer tool is used to manage database connections on an accessible computer. It is also used to browse running Windows Services, performance counters, Windows Event Log and message queues and use them as a datasource. Dotfuscator Software Services Community Edition. Visual Studio includes a free 'light' version of PreEmptive Solutions' Dotfuscator product for code obfuscation and application-size reduction. Starting with Visual Studio 2010, this version of Dotfuscator will include Runtime Intelligence capabilities that allow authors to gather end-user usage, performance, and stability information from their applications running in production.

 viii) TEXT GENERATION FRAMEWORK :

 Visual Studio includes a full text generation framework called T4 which enables Visual Studio to generate text files from templates either in the IDE or via code.

 ix) ASP.NET WEB SITE ADMINISTRATION TOOL :

 The ASP.NET Web Site Administration Tool allows for the configuration of ASP.NET websites.

5) EXTENSIBILITY :

Visual Studio allows developers to write extensions for Visual Studio to extend its capabilities. These extensions "plug into" Visual Studio and extend its functionality. Extensions come in the form of macros, add-ins, and packages. Macros represent repeatable tasks and actions that developers can record programmatically for saving, replaying, and distributing. Macros, however, cannot implement new commands or create tool windows. They are written using Visual Basic and are not compiled. Add-Ins provide access to the Visual Studio object model and can interact with the IDE tools. Add-Ins can be used
to implement new functionality and can add new tool windows. Add-Ins are plugged in to the IDE via COM and can be created in any COM-compliant languages. Packages are created using the Visual Studio SDK and provide the highest level of extensibility. They can create designers and other tools, as well as integrate other programming languages. The Visual Studio SDK provides unmanaged APIs as well as a managed API to accomplish these tasks. However, the managed API isn't as comprehensive as the unmanaged one. Extensions are supported in the Standard (and higher) versions of Visual Studio 2005. Express Editions do not support hosting extensions.

6) VISUAL STUDIO SHELL :

Visual Studio 2008 introduced the Visual Studio Shell that allows for development of a customized version of the IDE. The Visual Studio Shell defines a set of VSPackages that provide the functionality required in any IDE. On top of that, other packages can be added to customize the installation. The Isolated mode of the shell creates a new AppId where the packages are installed. These are to be started with a different executable. It is aimed for development of custom development environments, either for a specific language or a specific scenario. The Integrated mode installs the packages into the AppId of the Professional/Standard/Team System editions, so that the tools integrate into these editions. The Visual Studio Shell is available as a free download.

7) VISUAL STUDIO GALLERY :

After the release of Visual Studio 2008, Microsoft created the Visual Studio Gallery. It serves as the central location for posting information about extensions to Visual Studio. Community developers as well as commercial developers can upload information about their extensions to Visual Studio .NET 2002 through Visual Studio 2010. Users of the site can rate and review the extensions to help assess the quality of extensions being posted. RSS feeds to notify users on updates to the site and tagging features are also planned.

8) SUPPORTED PRODUCTS :

 i) MICROSOFT VISUAL C++ :

 Microsoft Visual C++ is Microsoft's implementation of the C and C++ compiler and associated languages-services and specific tools for integration with the Visual Studio IDE. It can compile either in C mode or C++ mode. For C, it follows the ISO C standard with parts of C99 spec along with MS-specific additions in the form of libraries. For C++, it follows the ANSI C++ spec along with a few C++0x features. It also supports the C++/CLI spec to write managed code, as well as mixed-mode code (a mix of native and managed code). Microsoft positions Visual C++ for development in native code or in code that contains both native as well as managed components. Visual C++ supports COM as well as the MFC library. For MFC development, it provides a set of wizards for creating and customizing MFC boilerplate code, and creating GUI applications using MFC. Visual C++ can also use the Visual Studio forms designer to design UI graphically. Visual C++ can also be used with the Windows API. It also supports the use of intrinsic functions, which are functions recognized by the compiler itself and not implemented as a library. Intrinsic functions are used to expose the SSE instruction set of modern CPUs. Visual C++ also includes the OpenMP (version 2.0) spec.

 ii) MICROSOFT VISUAL C# :

 Microsoft Visual C#, Microsoft's implementation of the C# language, targets the .NET Framework, along with the language services that lets the Visual Studio IDE support C# projects. While the language services are a part of Visual Studio, the compiler is available separately as a part of the .NET Framework. The Visual C# 2008 and 2010 compilers support versions 3.0, 4.0 and 4.5 of the C# language specifications, respectively. Visual C# supports the Visual Studio Class designer, Forms designer, and Data designer among others.

 iii) MICROSOFT VISUAL BASIC :

 Microsoft Visual Basic is Microsoft's implementation of the VB.NET language and associated tools and language services. It was introduced with Visual Studio .NET (2002). Microsoft has positioned Visual Basic for Rapid Application Development. Visual Basic can be used to author both console applications as well as GUI applications. Like Visual C#, Visual Basic also supports the Visual Studio Class designer, Forms designer, and Data designer among others. Like C#, the VB.NET compiler is also available as a part of .NET Framework, but the language services that let VB.NET projects be developed with Visual Studio, are available as a part of the latter.

 iv) MICROSOFT VISUAL WEB DEVELOPER :

 Microsoft Visual Web Developer is used to create web sites, web applications and web services using ASP.NET. Either C# or VB.NET languages can be used. Visual Web Developer can use the Visual Studio Web Designer to graphically design web page layouts.

 v) TEAM FOUNDATION SERVER :

 Included only with Visual Studio Team System, Team Foundation Server is intended for collaborative software development projects and acts as the server-side backend providing source control, data collection, reporting, and project-tracking functionality. It also includes the Team Explorer, the client tool for TFS services, which is integrated inside Visual Studio Team System.

9) EDITIONS :

 i) VISUAL STUDIO EXPRESS :

 Visual Studio Express Editions are a set of free lightweight individual IDEs which are provided as stripped-down versions of the Visual Studio IDE on a per-platform basis or per-language basis, i.e., it installs the development tools for the supported platforms (web, Windows, phone) or supported development languages (VB, C#) onto individual Visual Studio Shell AppIds. It includes only a small set of tools as compared to the other systems. It does not include support for plug-ins. x64 compilers are not included in the Visual Studio Express edition IDEs, but are available as part of a Windows Software Development Kit that can be installed separately. After an initial announcement that the Express 2012 release would be restricted to creating Windows 8 Metro (design language) style applications, Microsoft responded to negative developer feedback by reversing that decision and announcing that desktop application development would also be supported. Microsoft targets the Express IDEs at students and hobbyists. Express editions do not use the full MSDN Library but use the MSDN Essentials Library. The languages available as part of the Express IDEs are:

  a) Visual Basic Express
  b) Visual C++ Express
  c) Visual C# Express
  d) Visual Web Developer Express
  e) Express for Windows Phone

 ii) VISUAL STUDIO LIGHTSWITCH :

 It is an IDE specifically tailored for creating line-of-business applications built on existing .NET technologies
and Microsoft platforms. The applications produced are architecturally 3-tier: the user interface runs on Microsoft Silverlight; the logic and data-access tier is built on WCF RIA Services and Entity Framework, hosted in ASP.NET; and the primary data storage supports Microsoft SQL Server Express, Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft SQL Azure. LightSwitch also supports other data sources including Microsoft SharePoint. LightSwitch includes graphical designers for designing entities and entity relationships, entity queries, and UI screens. Business logic may be written in either Visual Basic or Visual C#. The tool can be installed as a stand-alone SKU or as an integrated add-in to Visual Studio 2010 Professional and higher.

 iii) VISUAL STUDIO PROFESSIONAL :

 It provides an IDE for all supported development languages. As of Visual Studio 2010, the Standard edition was dropped. MSDN support is available as MSDN Essentials or the full MSDN library depending on licensing. It supports XML and XSLT editing, and can create deployment packages that only use ClickOnce and MSI. It includes tools like Server Explorer and integration with Microsoft SQL Server also. Windows Mobile development support was included in Visual Studio 2005 Standard, however, with Visual Studio 2008, it is only available in Professional and higher editions. Windows Phone 7 development support was added to all editions in Visual Studio 2010. Development for Windows Mobile is no longer supported in Visual Studio 2010; it is superseded by Windows Phone 7.

 iv) VISUAL STUDIO PREMIUM :

 It includes all of the tools in Visual Studio Professional and adds additional functionality such as code metrics, profiling, static code analysis, and database unit testing.

 v) VISUAL STUDIO TOOLS FOR OFFICE :

 It is an SDK and an add-in for Visual Studio that includes tools for developing for the Microsoft Office suite. Previously (for Visual Studio .NET 2003 and Visual Studio 2005) it was a separate SKU that supported only Visual C# and Visual Basic languages or was included in the Team Suite. With Visual Studio 2008, it is no longer a separate SKU but is included with Professional and higher editions. A separate runtime is required when deploying VSTO solutions.

 vi) VISUAL STUDIO ULTIMATE :

 It provides a set of software and database development, collaboration, metrics, architecture, testing and reporting tools in addition to the features provided by Visual Studio Premium. As of Visual Studio 2010, the Team Suite edition was renamed to the Ultimate edition. Visual Studio Ultimate offers a superset of toolsets based on the Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) role it is being used for.

 vii) VISUAL STUDIO TEAM SYSTEM :

 Prior to Visual Studio 2010, Visual Studio Team System provided four role-specific editions are:

  a) Team Explorer (basic TFS client)
  b) Architecture Edition
  c) Database Edition
  d) Development Edition

 The combined functionality of the four Team System Editions is provided in a Team Suite Edition. The Database Edition, codenamed "DataDude", was initially released as a separate edition after Visual Studio 2005's initial release. It is included with Visual Studio 2008 as a separate edition, but Microsoft did roll its functionality into the Premium Edition with Visual Studio 2010.

 viii) TEST PROFESSIONAL :

 It is an edition which was introduced with Visual Studio 2010. Its focus is aimed at the dedicated tester role and includes support for the management of test environments, the ability to start and report on tests and to connect to Team Foundation Server. It does not include support for development or authoring of tests.

10) VERSION HISTORY :

 i) VISUAL STUDIO 97 :

 Microsoft first released Visual Studio codenamed "Boston", in 1997, bundling many of its programming tools together for the first time. It was Microsoft's first attempt at using the same development environment for multiple languages. Visual J++, InterDev, and the MSDN Library had all been using same 'environment', called Developer Studio. Visual C++, Visual Basic and Visual FoxPro used separate environments. It had further low budget CD versions targeting only one specific programming language at a time, such as Visual C++ v5, or Visual Basic v5.0. Each single programming language included the same Environment and lacked MSDN.

 ii) VISUAL STUDIO 6.0 :

 The next version, version 6.0 codenamed "Aspen", was released in June 1998 and is the last version to run on the Windows 9x platform. Visual Studio 6.0 came in two editions: Professional and Enterprise. The Enterprise edition contained extra features not found in Professional edition, including:

 a) Application Performance Explorer
 b) Automation Manager
 c) Microsoft Visual Modeler
 d) RemAuto Connection Manager
 e) Visual Studio Analyzer

 iii) VISUAL STUDIO .NET 2002 :

 Microsoft released Visual Studio .NET (VS.NET), codenamed "Rainier", in February 2002. The biggest change was the introduction of a managed code development environment using the .NET Framework. Programs developed using .NET are not compiled to machine language (like C++ is, for example) but instead to a format called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) or Common Intermediate Language (CIL). The Visual Studio .NET environment was rewritten to partially use .NET. All languages are versions of Visual Studio, it has a cleaner interface and greater cohesiveness. It is also more customizable with tool windows that automatically hide when not in use. While Visual FoxPro 7 started out as part of Visual Studio .NET 2002, and early VS betas allowed debugging inside VFP-based DLLs, it was removed before release to follow its own development track.

 iv) VISUAL STUDIO .NET 2003 :

 Microsoft introduced a minor upgrade to Visual Studio .NET called Visual Studio .NET 2003, codenamed "Everett". It includes an upgrade to the .NET Framework, version 1.1, and is the first release to support developing programs for mobile devices, using ASP.NET or the .NET Compact Framework. Visual Studio .NET 2003 shipped in four editions: Academic, Professional, Enterprise Developer, and Enterprise Architect. The Visual Studio .NET 2003 Enterprise Architect edition includes an implementation of Microsoft Visio 2002's modeling technologies, including tools for creating Unified Modeling Language-based visual representations of an application's architecture, and a powerful Object-Role Modeling (ORM) and logical database-modeling solution.

 v) VISUAL STUDIO 2005 :

 Visual Studio 2005, codenamed "Whidbey", was released online in October 2005 and to retail stores a few weeks later. Microsoft removed the ".NET" moniker from Visual Studio 2005, but it still primarily targets the .NET Framework, which was upgraded to version 2.0. It is the last version available for Windows 2000 and also the last version to be able to target Windows 98, Windows Me and Windows NT 4.0 for C++ applications.

 vi) VISUAL STUDIO 2008 :

 Visual Studio 2008 and Visual Studio Team System 2008 codenamed "Orcas", were released to MSDN subscribers on 19 November 2007 alongside .NET Framework 3.5. The source code for the Visual Studio 2008 IDE is available under a shared source license to some of Microsoft's partners and ISVs. Microsoft released Service Pack 1 for Visual Studio 2008 on 11 August 2008. The internal version number of Visual Studio 2008 is version 9.0 while the file format version is 10.0. Visual Studio 2008 is the last version to support targeting Windows 2000 for C++ applications.

 vii) VISUAL STUDIO 2010 :

On April 12, 2010, Microsoft released Visual Studio 2010, codenamed Dev10, and .NET Framework 4. Visual Studio 2010 IDE has been redesigned which, according to Microsoft, clears the UI organization and "reduces clutter and complexity." The new IDE better supports multiple document windows and floating tool windows, while offering better multi-monitor support. The IDE shell has been rewritten using the Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), whereas the internals have been redesigned using Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) that offers more extensibility points than previous versions of the IDE that enabled add-ins to modify the behavior of the IDE.

 viii) VISUAL STUDIO 2012 :

 Visual Studio 2012 is a comprehensive family of products for every organization, team and individual developer that wants to modernize or create exciting apps. Visual Studio 2012 also simplifies the product family by integrating capabilities that were previously available in separate products and bringing exciting new capabilities to every edition. Visual Studio 2012 provides cutting-edge tools and technologies to create apps that are optimized for the latest platforms. Visual Studio 2012 will also target earlier platforms so you can create new apps or modernize existing apps that execute on earlier versions of Windows.